Background: Hyperacute rejection (HAR) and acute humoral rejection (AHR) remain recalcitrant conditions without effective treatments, and usually result in graft loss. Plasmapheresis (PP) has been shown to remove HLA- specific antibody (Ab) in many different clinical settings. Intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) has been used to suppress alloantibody and modulate immune responses. Our hypothesis was that a combination of PP and IVIG could effectively and durably remove donor-specific, anti-HLA antibody (Ab), rescuing patients with established AHR and preemptively desensitizing recipients who had positive crossmatches with a potential live donor.
Methods: The study patients consisted of seven live donor kidney transplant recipients who experienced AHR and had donor-specific Ab (DSA) for one or more mismatched donor HLA antigens. The patients segregated into two groups: three patients were treated for established AHR (rescue group) and four cross-match-positive patients received therapy before transplantation (preemptive group).
Results: Using PP/IVIG we have successfully reversed established AHR in three patients. Four patients who were cross-match-positive (3 by flow cytometry and 1 by cytotoxic assay) and had DSA before treatment underwent successful renal transplantation utilizing their live donor. The overall mean creatinine for both treatment groups is 1.4+/-0.8 with a mean follow up of 58+/-40 weeks (range 17-116 weeks).
Conclusions: In this study, we present seven patients for whom the combined therapies of PP/IVIG were successful in reversing AHR mediated by Ab specific for donor HLA antigens. Furthermore, this protocol shows promise for eliminating DSA preemptively among patients with low-titer positive antihuman globulin-enhanced, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (AHG-CDC) cross-matches, allowing the successful transplantation of these patients using a live donor without any cases of HAR.