Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and prognosis of IgA nephropathy

Nephron. 2000 Oct;86(2):115-21. doi: 10.1159/000045728.


Background/aim: Well-known factors for a poor prognosis in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) are hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency at the time of diagnosis. Also hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia seem to play a role in the progression of IgAN. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D polymorphism has been associated with cardiovascular diseases and with progression of IgAN. We, therefore, investigated the contribution of ACE gene I/D polymorphism in the prognosis of IgAN and its association with the other risk factors affecting the prognosis.

Methods: A total of 168 patients with IgAN were followed up for 6-17 (median 11) years from renal biopsy with respect to progression of renal disease defined as elevation of serum creatinine above 125 microM (1.4 mg/dl) in men or 105 microM (1.2 mg/dl) in women and over 20% from the baseline level. In addition to serum creatinine, the urinary protein excretion was evaluated at the time of renal biopsy and at the assessment visit at the end of the follow-up period.

Results: During the follow-up period, 26 (15%) patients showed progression of renal disease. Patients with ACE genotype II had a more favorable course than those with genotypes ID or DD. Although there were no significant differences among the ACE genotypes with respect to proteinuria > or =1 g/24 h at the time of renal biopsy, proteinuria > or =1 g/24 h was more frequent in patients with genotypes ID or DD than in those with genotype II at the end of the follow-up period. No associations were found between hypertension, serum lipids or serum urate, and ACE genotypes.

Conclusions: Our results show that patients with ACE genotype II have a more favorable prognosis than those with genotypes ID/DD. Secondly, proteinuria (> or =1 g/24 h) found in patients with genotype II at diagnosis may improve, while in patients with genotypes ID/DD it is a more constant feature.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biopsy
  • Blood Pressure
  • Child
  • DNA Transposable Elements
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genotype
  • Glomerulonephritis, IGA / genetics*
  • Glomerulonephritis, IGA / mortality
  • Glomerulonephritis, IGA / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Prognosis
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Survival Rate
  • Time Factors


  • DNA Transposable Elements
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A