Bacillus fermented legume products include among others dawadawa and soumbala made from African locust bean, and natto and kinema made from soya bean. Bacillus subtilis is the dominant species involved in the fermentation. During Bacillus fermentation for 48 h of autoclaved soya bean the quantity of soluble and dialyzable matter increased from 22% and 6% up to 65% and 40%, respectively. Protein and carbohydrate degradation during fermentation of soya bean with several Bacillus spp. was investigated and appeared to be substantial during the first 18 h of fermentation resulting in the release of high levels of peptides and oligosaccharides. In vitro digestibility was increased from 29% up to 33-43% after Bacillus fermentation for 48 h. It was shown that Bacillus spp. were able to degrade soya bean macromolecules to a large extent resulting in water-soluble low molecular weight compounds. In vitro digestion of Bacillus fermented soya bean using gastrointestinal enzymes only slightly increased the amount of dialyzable matter, which clearly demonstrated the beneficial effect of Bacillus fermentation on food nutrient availability.