Functional modulation of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase

Annu Rev Microbiol. 2000;54:499-518. doi: 10.1146/annurev.micro.54.1.499.


The promoter recognition specificity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is modulated by replacement of the sigma subunit in the first step and by interaction with transcription factors in the second step. The overall differentiated state of approximately 2000 molecules of the RNA polymerase in a single cell can be estimated after measurement of both the intracellular concentrations and the RNA polymerase-binding affinities for all seven species of the sigma subunit and 100-150 transcription factors. The anticipated impact from this line of systematic approach is that the prediction of the expression hierarchy of approximately 4000 genes on the E. coli genome can be estimated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases / metabolism*
  • Escherichia coli / enzymology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Subunits
  • Sigma Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Sigma Factor / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Protein Subunits
  • Sigma Factor
  • Transcription Factors
  • DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases