The Hemodialysis Study is a multicenter clinical trial of hemodialysis prescriptions for patients with end stage renal disease. Participants from over 65 dialysis facilities associated with 15 clinical centers in the United States are randomized in a 2 x 2 factorial design to dialysis prescriptions targeted to a standard dose or a high dose, and to either low or high flux membranes. The primary outcome variable is mortality; major secondary outcomes are defined based on hospitalizations due to cardiovascular or infectious complications, and on the decline of serum albumin. The Outcome Committee, consisting of study investigators, uses a blinded review system to classify causes of death and hospitalizations related to the major secondary outcomes. The dialysis dose intervention is directed by the Data Coordinating Center using urea kinetic modeling programs that analyze results from dialysis treatments to monitor adherence to the study targets, adjust suggested dialysis prescriptions, and assist in trouble-shooting problems with the delivery of dialysis. The study design has adequate power to detect reductions in mortality rate equal to 25% of the projected baseline mortality rate for both of the interventions.