Paternal occupational exposures and embryo implantation rates after IVF

Fertil Steril. 2000 Oct;74(4):690-5. doi: 10.1016/s0015-0282(00)00720-2.


Objective: To investigate any influence of paternal occupational exposures on implantation rates after IVF.

Design: Cohort study of couples who sought IVF treatment.

Setting: University Hospital Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Patient(s): The study population was composed of 726 couples pursuing IVF treatment.

Intervention(s): Only the earliest IVF treatment cycle with ET was selected for the analysis. All couples filled in a generic questionnaire on lifestyle factors and details about their occupation. In addition, more detailed exposure information was obtained for pesticides with use of job-specific questionnaires and a subsequent telephone interview.

Main outcome measure(s): The implantation rate was defined as the number of gestational sacs seen with ultrasound at 6-7 weeks of pregnancy, divided by the number of embryos replaced.

Result(s): A significantly reduced implantation rate was seen among couples with male partners working in occupations with presumably high levels of organic solvent exposure. Conversely, paternal pesticide exposure was significantly associated with an increased implantation rate. Paternal exposures to metal dust or fumes and welding fumes were not related to the probability of implantation.

Conclusion(s): The findings suggested that paternal organic solvent exposure decreased the implantation rate among couples undergoing IVF-ET treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cohort Studies
  • Embryo Implantation*
  • Embryo Transfer
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Netherlands
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Paternal Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Pesticides / adverse effects
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
  • Solvents / adverse effects
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Pesticides
  • Solvents