Background: We measured receipt of age-appropriate preventive health services by lesbians and assessed whether provider and individual characteristics, including disclosure of sexual orientation, are independently associated with receipt of these services.
Methods: A questionnaire was printed in a national biweekly gay, lesbian, and bisexual news magazine, and self-identified lesbians living in all U. S. states (N =6935) responded to the survey. Main outcome variables were receipt of a Pap smear within the preceding 1 and 2 years and, for women aged > or= 50, receipt of a mammogram within the past 1 and 2 years.
Results: Fifty-four percent had Pap smears within 1 year and 71% within 2 years, with increasing rates among older and more educated respondents. Seventy percent of respondents aged > or = 50 had a mammogram in the past year, and 83% within 2 years; rates did not vary significantly controlling for education. Sixty percent had disclosed their sexual orientation to their regular health care provider. Controlling for patient and provider characteristics, disclosure was independently associated with receipt of Pap smears, but not mammograms.
Conclusions: It is important for providers to identify their lesbian patients' unmet needs for preventive health care. Additionally, it is important for providers to provide complete and appropriate preventive health care for their lesbian patients. Further research is needed to determine why lesbians are not receiving Pap smears at the recommended rate and whether this disparity is reflective of aspects of cervical cancer screening or indicates a more general problem with access to health care including receipt of preventive services.