Design and implementation of a controlled trial of pediatric endotracheal intubation in the out-of-hospital setting

Ann Emerg Med. 2000 Oct;36(4):356-65. doi: 10.1067/mem.2000.109447.


This article describes the design and implementation of the Pediatric Airway Management Project. The project was completed January 1, 1997, and evaluated the effectiveness of endotracheal intubation relative to bag-valve-mask ventilation in improving survival to hospital discharge and neurologic outcome in children, the effect of training on paramedic airway management skills and self-efficacy, the length of time the skills can be retained, and the costs of training and retraining. The main focus of project design was the implementation of a controlled trial comparing methods of airway management for acutely ill and injured pediatric patients in the out-of-hospital setting. To date, this project is the largest prospective, controlled, out-of-hospital study of the care of children ever reported. Barriers to implementation of a study of this size are described.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Airway Obstruction / therapy*
  • Bayes Theorem
  • California
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Emergency Medical Services / methods*
  • Emergency Medical Technicians / education*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Intubation, Intratracheal*
  • Masks*
  • Pediatrics*