This article describes the design and implementation of the Pediatric Airway Management Project. The project was completed January 1, 1997, and evaluated the effectiveness of endotracheal intubation relative to bag-valve-mask ventilation in improving survival to hospital discharge and neurologic outcome in children, the effect of training on paramedic airway management skills and self-efficacy, the length of time the skills can be retained, and the costs of training and retraining. The main focus of project design was the implementation of a controlled trial comparing methods of airway management for acutely ill and injured pediatric patients in the out-of-hospital setting. To date, this project is the largest prospective, controlled, out-of-hospital study of the care of children ever reported. Barriers to implementation of a study of this size are described.