Total arterial myocardial revascularization using new composite graft techniques for internal mammary and/or radial arteries conduits

J Card Surg. 1999 Nov-Dec;14(6):408-16.


Background: Total arterial myocardial revascularization (TAMR) is feasible because of the excellent long-term patency of the arterial conduits. We present five new surgical configurations for TAMR.

Methods: Between December 1998 and July 1999, 34 patients with triple vessel disease underwent TAMR. All patients were in CCS III or IV. Sketelonized internal mammary arteries (IMAs) were used. The surgical techniques for TAMR consisted of Y or T composite grafts constructed between the in situ RIMA and free LIMA graft or radial artery (RA) conduit in three different configurations. Other techniques uses included a T graft constructed between the RA conduit and free LIMA graft in two configurations. Twenty-six (76%) patients underwent contrast-enhanced TTE color Doppler before and after adenosine provocative test, and seven (20%) patients had postoperative coronary angiography.

Results: Overall, 144 anastomoses (average number per patient, 4.2) were completed. One (2.9%) patient undergoing an inverted T graft technique died on postoperative day 2. Another patient (2.9%) undergoing the right Y graft technique using IMAs and RA suffered perioperative AMI due to RA conduit vasospasm. Contrast-enhanced TTE color Doppler before and after the adenosine provocative test and at 1 week postoperation revealed a coronary flow reserve (CFR) of 2.1 +/- 0.2 in the LIMA stem, and in the RIMA stem, a CFR of 2.3 +/- 0.3 (P < 0.007). In one patient undergoing the right Y graft technique using IMAs, we found only anomalous flow dynamic parameters of RIMA, suggesting a partial graft closure. The angiographic examination revealed a free LIMA graft closure. At 6 +/- 2.4 months after operation 33 patients were alive and free of angina. The IMAs stem evaluation by TTE color Doppler at follow-up revealed a 2.45 +/- 0.1 mm LIMA diameter and 2.6 +/- 0.2 mm RIMA diameter, which was more than early postoperative data of P < 0.001 and P < 0.007, respectively.

Conclusion: These data indicate that TAMR in young patients perhaps offers a better postoperative outcome and perhaps should be part of the surgical armamentarium. These techniques apply the "nontouch" principle and should be taken into consideration in patients with a heavily calcified aorta. Contrast-enhanced TTE color Doppler is a safe, accurate, and noninvasive test, which allows assessment of IMA patency and CFR evaluation. The flow reserve of the IMAs seems to be adequate for multiple coronary anastomoses.

MeSH terms

  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Artery Bypass / methods*
  • Coronary Disease / diagnosis
  • Coronary Disease / surgery*
  • Echocardiography, Doppler, Color
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Graft Occlusion, Vascular / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Revascularization / methods*
  • Postoperative Complications / diagnosis
  • Radial Artery / transplantation*
  • Treatment Outcome