Associations have been reported between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse and adult substance abuse in general. This study investigated the relationship between childhood abuse and opiate use in particular among 763 consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients. Patients were interviewed about demographic information, alcohol and drug use, and history of interpersonal violence. Opiate users were 2.7 times more likely to have a history of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse than nonopiate users, after controlling for diagnostic and sociodemographic variables. Opiate use was higher among those reporting physical abuse alone (24.1%) or both physical and sexual abuse (27%) than among those reporting sexual abuse alone (8.8%). Implications of these findings are discussed.