Gene therapy is an attractive therapy for hepatocarcinoma, and several approaches have been studied using murine leukemia virus-derived retroviruses. We compared gene transfer efficacy and transgene expression kinetics after transduction of hepatocarcinoma cell lines using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vectors and HIV-derived lentiviral vectors. First, we showed that both retroviral and lentiviral vectors efficiently transduce cycling hepatocarcinoma cell lines in vitro. However, after cell cycle arrest, transduction efficacy remained the same for lentiviral vectors but it decreased by 80% for retroviral vectors. Second, we studied EGFP expression kinetics using lentiviral vectors expressing EGFP under the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) or phosphoglycerolkinase (PGK) promoter. We show that the CMV promoter allows a stronger EGFP expression than the PGK promoter. However, in contrast to PGK-driven EGFP expression, which persists up to 2 months after transduction, CMV-driven EGFP expression rapidly decreased with time. This phenomenon is due to promoter silencing, and EGFP expression can be restored in transduced cells by using transcription activators such as interleukin-6 or phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin and, to a lesser extent, the demethylating agent 5'-azacytidine. Altogether, our results suggest that lentiviral vectors, which allow efficient transduction of hepatocarcinoma cell lines with a strong and a sustained expression according to the promoter used, are promising tools for gene therapy of hepatocarcinomas.