The first prophylactic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine trial in Africa, with a clade B immunogen, is currently under way in Uganda, in a region where clades A and D are endemic. The use of a B clade vaccine is based on anticipated cross-recognition of endemic strains of HIV-1 in Uganda, but, in fact, little is known about the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in that region. Seventeen HIV-1-infected volunteers from Kampala, Uganda, were studied to determine the immune responses elicited by natural infection with local HIV-1 strains. Despite the presence of broad cross-clade recognition, the CTL responses to the infecting viral clade were highest in most people. Recognition of nonendemic clade B antigens was similar to that of the coendemic local clade, and, in some instances, cross-recognition of clade B was greater. Nevertheless, the degree of cross-clade cellular responses we observed lends justification to the use of clade B-based immunogens in the current phase 1 vaccine trial in Uganda.