A multiple antigen peptide (MAP) malaria vaccine containing minimal Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein repeat epitopes was assessed for safety and immunogenicity in volunteers of known class II genotypes. The MAP/alum/QS-21 vaccine formulation elicited high levels of parasite-specific antibodies in 10 of 12 volunteers expressing DQB1*0603, DRB1*0401, or DRB1*1101 class II molecules. In contrast, volunteers of other HLA genotypes were low responders or nonresponders. A second study of 7 volunteers confirmed the correlation of class II genotype and high responder phenotype. This is the first demonstration in humans that a peptide vaccine containing minimal T and B cell epitopes composed of only 5 amino acids (N, A, V, D, and P) can elicit antibody titers comparable to multiple exposures to irradiated P. falciparum-infected mosquitoes. Moreover, the high-responder phenotypes were predicted by analysis of peptide/HLA interactions in vitro, thus facilitating the rational design of epitope-based peptide vaccines for malaria, as well as for other pathogens.