Background: Endovascular therapy with Guglielmi detachable coils is an accepted treatment option for patients with intracranial aneurysms. However, an emerging technology in the realm of endovascular tools is the use of traditional Guglielmi detachable coils with biologically active substances complexed to the coil surface to enhance aneurysm occlusion.
Methods: We review the literature and current trends in modified Guglielmi detachable coils. Surface modifications with extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors, ion impregnation, and genetically altered cells have been used in animal studies to improve the cellular response of Guglielmi detachable coils. Similarly, coronary artery stents have been modified in several different ways to maintain vessel patency, contrary to the goal of endovascular therapy. We comparatively reviewed this literature to add insight into the evolution of the research on modified Guglielmi detachable coils.
Conclusions: Guglielmi detachable coil modifications have the potential to enhance aneurysm obliteration with directed cellular responses. This may allow aneurysm occlusion with coils in less time than untreated coils, thus decreasing the risks of aneurysm enlargement and hemorrhage.