Only a few RFamide peptides have been identified in mammals, although they have been abundantly found in invertebrates. Here we report the identification of a human gene that encodes at least three RFamide-related peptides, hRFRP-1-3. Cells transfected with a seven-transmembrane-domain receptor, OT7T022, specifically respond to synthetic hRFRP-1 and hRFRP-3 but not to hRFRP-2. RFRP and OT7T022 mRNAs are expressed in particular regions of the rat hypothalamus, and intracerebroventricular administration of hRFRP-1 increases prolactin secretion in rats. Our results indicate that a variety of RFamide-related peptides may exist and function in mammals.