Six cases with recurrent or refractory primary central nervous system lymphoma were treated with a new chemotherapeutic regimen "DeVIC (dexamethasone, VP16, ifosfamide, carboplatin)". Five recurrent cases had a remission period for an average of 18 months after initial treatment, but relapse occurred. One refractory case had no response after initial treatment. Then these 6 cases were treated with 1-3 courses of DeVIC chemotherapy at intervals of 4 weeks. Two cases achieved complete remission, and 3 cases attained partial remission (response rate was 83%). One case showed no response after 1 course of DeVIC chemotherapy. However, in all cases re-relapse occurred 1-5 months after remission, and only 1 case is still alive. DeVIC chemotherapy produced a high response rate for recurrent central nervous system lymphoma, but re-relapse occurred after only a few months. The establishment of maintenance chemotherapy is required.