We reviewed our institutional experience with de novo CD5+, large B-cell lymphomas to determine whether they represent a distinct entity and are related to CD5+ small B-cell disorders. We identified 13 cases with multiparameter flow cytometry over a period of 58 months (5% of large B-cell lymphomas) in 7 females and 6 males. Three groups were identified. Group 1 (2 cases) had diffuse splenic red pulp involvement with a distinctive cordal pattern of infiltration, no other clinical evidence of mass disease, microscopic disseminated disease on further workup, and an identical immunoglobulin-negative immunophenotype. Group 2 cases (7 cases) were clinically and morphologically heterogeneous and had an immunophenotype resembling mantle cell lymphoma (FMC7-positive, CD23-). Group 3 (4 cases) had miscellaneous immunophenotypes, including one closely resembling chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cyclin D1 was positive in only 1 of 10 evaluable cases (group 2). We conclude that CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphomas are heterogeneous; most cases do not seem to be related to chronic lymphocytic leukemia or mantle cell lymphoma. However, we identified a subgroup of primary splenic CD5+ large B-cell lymphoma with diffuse red pulp involvement and believe this may represent a distinct clinicopathologic entity.