1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], the active hormonal metabolite of vitamin D, acts through a specific nuclear receptor to inhibit proliferation and promote differentiation of several tumor cell types including the LNCaP, DU145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines as well as primary prostate tumor lines. 1,25(OH)2D3 can also decrease invasion of breast and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. We confirm this latter finding in the DU145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and further show that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits overall invasion, cell adhesion and migration to the basement membrane matrix protein laminin. These changes appear to be due in part to a 1,25(OH)2D3-induced decrease in expression of alpha6 and beta4 integrins, both of which are receptors for laminin and associated with increased migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Blocking function of these particular integrins with antibodies inhibits both adhesion and migration of the cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3, in addition to decreasing proliferation of tumor cells, can also inhibit prostate cancer cell invasion through modulation of select cell surface adhesion molecules.