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Review
, 32 (1), 56-67

Concordance of the Toxicity of Pharmaceuticals in Humans and in Animals

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Review

Concordance of the Toxicity of Pharmaceuticals in Humans and in Animals

H Olson et al. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.

Abstract

This report summarizes the results of a multinational pharmaceutical company survey and the outcome of an International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Workshop (April 1999), which served to better understand concordance of the toxicity of pharmaceuticals observed in humans with that observed in experimental animals. The Workshop included representatives from academia, the multinational pharmaceutical industry, and international regulatory scientists. The main aim of this project was to examine the strengths and weaknesses of animal studies to predict human toxicity (HT). The database was developed from a survey which covered only those compounds where HTs were identified during clinical development of new pharmaceuticals, determining whether animal toxicity studies identified concordant target organ toxicities in humans. Data collected included codified compounds, therapeutic category, the HT organ system affected, and the species and duration of studies in which the corresponding HT was either first identified or not observed. This survey includes input from 12 pharmaceutical companies with data compiled from 150 compounds with 221 HT events reported. Multiple HTs were reported in 47 cases. The results showed the true positive HT concordance rate of 71% for rodent and nonrodent species, with nonrodents alone being predictive for 63% of HTs and rodents alone for 43%. The highest incidence of overall concordance was seen in hematological, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular HTs, and the least was seen in cutaneous HT. Where animal models, in one or more species, identified concordant HT, 94% were first observed in studies of 1 month or less in duration. These survey results support the value of in vivo toxicology studies to predict for many significant HTs associated with pharmaceuticals and have helped to identify HT categories that may benefit from improved methods.

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