The allergen-induced late asthmatic reaction (LAR) is associated with increases in bronchial eosinophils and basophils as well as upregulation of several eosinophil active cytokines and C-C chemokines. Cyclosporin A (CsA) was previously shown to inhibit the LAR, but not the early asthmatic reaction (EAR), and this was associated with a decrease in blood eosinophils. For these reasons, we determined whether CsA inhibited the allergen-induced increases in bronchial eosinophils, basophils, eotaxin, interleukin-5 (IL-5), and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Subjects with a demonstrable LAR underwent bronchoscopy with biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at baseline and then were randomly allocated to receive either CsA (n = 13) or placebo (n = 11) before challenge. A second bronchoscopy was performed 24 h later. The LAR, but not the EAR, was significantly attenuated in the CsA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). CsA significantly inhibited the allergen-induced increases in IL-5 (p = 0.02) and GM-CSF (p = 0. 0028) in mRNA+ cells in BAL, and in a mAB against human activated eosinophils (EG2+) (p = 0.0227). We conclude that inhibition of the LAR by CsA may be related to its inhibitory effects on eosinophil-associated cytokines and chemokines. The beneficial effect of CsA in asthma may also be the result of inhibition of eosinophil accumulation.