Hirschsprung disease and Waardenburg syndrome are human genetic diseases characterized by distinct neural crest defects. Patients with Hirschsprung disease suffer from gastrointestinal motility disorders, whereas Waardenburg syndrome consists of defective melanocyte function, deafness, and craniofacial abnormalities. Mutations responsible for Hirschsprung disease and Waardenburg syndrome have been identified, and some patients have been described with characteristics of both disorders. Here, we demonstrate that PAX3, which is often mutated in Waardenburg syndrome, is required for normal enteric ganglia formation. Pax3 can bind to and activate expression of the c-RET gene, which is often mutated in Hirschsprung disease. Pax3 functions with Sox10 to activate transcription of c-RET, and SOX10 mutations result in Waardenburg-Hirschsprung syndrome. Thus, Pax3, Sox10, and c-Ret are components of a neural crest development pathway, and interruption of this pathway at various stages results in neural crest-related human genetic syndromes.