Neural BC1 RNA is distributed in neuronal dendrites as RNA-protein complexes (BC1 RNPs) containing Translin. In this study, we demonstrated that the single-stranded DNA- and RNA-binding protein pur alpha and its isoform, pur beta, which have been implicated in control of DNA replication and transcription, linked BC1 RNA to microtubules (MTs). The binding site was within the 5' proximal region of BC1 RNA containing putative dendrite-targeting RNA motifs rich in G and U residues, suggesting that in the cytoplasm of neurons, these nuclear factors are involved in the BC1 RNA transport along dendritic MTs. The pur proteins were not components of BC1 RNP but appeared to associate with MTs in brain cells. Therefore, it is suggested that they may transiently interact with the RNP during transport. In this respect, the interaction of pur proteins with BC1 RNA could be regulated by the Translin present within the RNP, because the binding mode of these two classes of proteins (pur proteins and Translin) to the dendrite-targeting RNA motifs was mutually exclusive. As the motifs are well conserved in microtubule-associated protein 2a/b mRNA as well, the pur proteins may also play a role(s) in the dendritic transport of a subset of mRNAs.