The usefulness of positron emission tomography with 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET) in diagnosing recurrence and lymph node metastasis of uterine cervical cancer was evaluated as a preliminary study. The FDG uptake of 13 cervical cancer patients, including 4 patients with recurrence, was evaluated. The FDG uptake of the cervices of 5 patients who underwent PET studies for non-cervical tumors were used as control. In 2 patients who had undergone radical hysterectomy, we compared the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis based on FDG-PET and magnetic resonance imaging. The FDG uptake in the 9 primary cervical cancers was greater than that in normal cervices (p=0.025). Examination of the 4 recurrent tumors revealed a higher FDG uptake than that in normal cervices (p=0.0022). Metastatic lesions in lymph nodes showed an accumulation of FDG on the PET scan. In conclusion, FDG-PET may be an effective diagnostic tool for detecting recurrence and lymph node metastasis of uterine cervical cancers.