Athens Insomnia Scale: validation of an instrument based on ICD-10 criteria

J Psychosom Res. 2000 Jun;48(6):555-60. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3999(00)00095-7.


Objectives: To describe and validate the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS).

Methods: The AIS is a self-assessment psychometric instrument designed for quantifying sleep difficulty based on the ICD-10 criteria. It consists of eight items: the first five pertain to sleep induction, awakenings during the night, final awakening, total sleep duration, and sleep quality; while the last three refer to well-being, functioning capacity, and sleepiness during the day. Either the entire eight-item scale (AIS-8) or the brief five-item version (AIS-5), which contains only the first five items, can be utilized. The validation of the AIS was based on its administration to 299 subjects: 105 primary insomniacs, 144 psychiatric patients and 50 non-patient controls.

Results: Regarding internal consistency, for both versions of the scale, the Cronbach's alpha was around 0. 90 and the mean item-total correlation coefficient was about 0.70. Moreover, in the factor analysis, the scale emerged as a sole component. The test-retest reliability correlation coefficient was found almost 0.90 at a 1-week interval. As far as external validity is concerned, the correlations of the AIS-8 and AIS-5 with the Sleep Problems Scale were 0.90 and 0.85, respectively.

Conclusion: The high measures of consistency, reliability, and validity of the AIS make it an invaluable tool in sleep research and clinical practice.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / classification
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Mental Disorders / psychology
  • Middle Aged
  • Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / statistics & numerical data*
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / classification
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / psychology