The role of the community pharmacist involved in primary care has been undergoing change. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, developments in computerized medication surveillance within the Netherlands enabled pharmacists to react to prescriptions and detect inappropriate pharmacotherapy in community pharmacy sites. This activity became more clinically or patient-oriented in the late 1980s. In the early 1990s, pharmaceutical care was introduced in community pharmacy practice, and emphasis was given to providing patient-centered care and documenting cognitive services. The key features of pharmaceutical care provided in the primary care setting are described based on a review of the literature and on experiences in the Netherlands. Patient outcomes have yet to be shown to be improved by community pharmacy practice; methods for measuring performance are still lacking. Methods to evaluate the extent of integration of community pharmacy services into the clinical team are also lacking but are needed in order to define the future role of community pharmacists in the primary care setting. Integrated care needs to be developed in the Netherlands in order to present the next phase in the process of the "pharmaceutical evolution."