Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a family of dimeric isoforms that stimulates, e.g., growth, chemotaxis and cell shape changes of various connective tissue cell types and certain other cells. The cellular effects of PDGF isoforms are exerted through binding to two structurally related tyrosine kinase receptors. Ligand binding induces receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation. This enables a number of SH2 domain containing signal transduction molecules to bind to the receptors, thereby initiating various signaling pathways. PDGF isoforms have important roles during the embryonic development, particularly in the formation of connective tissue in various organs. In the adult, PDGF stimulates wound healing. Overactivity of PDGF has been implicated in certain disorders, including fibrotic conditions, atherosclerosis, and malignancies. Different kinds of PDGF antagonists are currently being developed and evaluated in different animal disease models, as well as in clinical trials.