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, 165 (8), 4470-7

Regulated Production and Molecular Diversity of Human Liver and Activation-Regulated Chemokine/Macrophage Inflammatory protein-3 Alpha From Normal and Transformed Cells

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Regulated Production and Molecular Diversity of Human Liver and Activation-Regulated Chemokine/Macrophage Inflammatory protein-3 Alpha From Normal and Transformed Cells

E Schutyser et al. J Immunol.

Abstract

Liver and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC), also designated macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha), Exodus, or CCL20, is a C-C chemokine that attracts immature dendritic cells and memory T lymphocytes, both expressing CCR6. Depending on the cell type, this chemokine was found to be inducible by cytokines (IL-1beta) and by bacterial, viral, or plant products (including LPS, dsRNA, and PMA) as measured by a specific ELISA. Although coinduced with monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-8 by dsRNA, measles virus, and IL-1beta in diploid fibroblasts, leukocytes produced LARC/MIP-3alpha only in response to LPS. However, in myelomonocytic THP-1 cells LARC/MIP-3alpha was better induced by phorbol ester, whereas in HEp-2 epidermal carcinoma cells IL-1beta was the superior inducer. The production levels of LARC/MIP-3alpha (1-10 ng/ml) were, on the average, 10- to 100-fold lower than those of IL-8 and MCP-1, but were comparable to those of other less abundantly secreted chemokines. Natural LARC/MIP-3alpha protein isolated from stimulated leukocytes or tumor cell lines showed molecular diversity, in that NH(2)- and COOH-terminally truncated forms were purified and identified by amino acid sequence analysis and mass spectrometry. In contrast to other chemokines, including MCP-1 and IL-8, the natural processing did not affect the calcium-mobilizing capacity of LARC/MIP-3alpha through its receptor CCR6. Furthermore, truncated natural LARC/MIP-3alpha isoforms were equally chemotactic for lymphocytes as intact rLARC/MIP-3alpha. It is concluded that in addition to its role in homeostatic trafficking of leukocytes, LARC/MIP-3alpha can function as an inflammatory chemokine during host defense.

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