Chromogranins belong to an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins that serve as neuropeptide pro-proteins, besides having other functions. The secretogranin-II-derived peptide secretoneurin is a 33-amino-acid polypeptide generated by proteolytic cleavage at paired dibasic sequences that exerts its effect by binding to specific receptors. Secretoneurin receptors have been kinetically and functionally characterized indicating that they are G-protein linked. Localization of secretoneurin and functional studies have helped to elucidate roles for secretoneurin, ranging from effects in the central nervous system to the modulation of the inflammatory response in the periphery. It has been shown that secretoneurin possesses biologic activities such as stimulation of dopamine release from striatal neurons and activation of monocyte migration, suggesting that the peptide may modulate both neurotransmission and inflammatory response. With an array of actions as diverse as that seen with other sensory neuropeptides, there is scope for numerous studies and therapeutic possibilities.