Large percentages of patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) do not have a defined etiology. Between 1992-1993, 99 acute and convalescent sera were collected from patients with CAP of unknown etiology. The sera were tested using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) against the following antigens: Legionella pneumophila, serogroups 3,5,6 and 7 and L. longbeachae, L. anisa, L. bozemanii and Legionella-Like Amoebal Pathogens (LLAP). A four-fold rise in titer to at least one of the antigens tested, was seen in 14% of patients; 8% to L. bozemanii, 4% to L. anisa, 2% to S. lyticum, 2% to LLAP 10 and 1% each to LLAP 1, 6 and 9. Two patients reacted to several antigens. These results indicate that other species of legionella may be important in the etiology of CAP. L. bozemanii was the organism identified in the majority of these infections. Better diagnostic studies i.e. cultures, serologies and urinary antigen testing, which recognize legionella isolates other than L. pneumophila serogroup 1 need to be developed.