Cytopathology or Immunopathology? The Puzzle of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis Revisited

Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000 Sep;26(6):591-7. doi: 10.1038/sj.bmt.1702562.

Abstract

Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain why cytomegalovirus pneumonitis (CMV-P) is frequent and severe in bone marrow transplant patients while remaining rare and mild in HIV infected patients. One hypothesis suggests that CMV-P is an immunopathological condition that is common in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) under the effects of an abnormally regenerating immune system that reacts against CMV infected lung tissue. Such a hypothesis implicates CD4 T lymphocytes as one of the critical cell populations involved in immunopathology and also suggests that this process would be aborted by CD4 T cell deficiency in HIV infection. However, studies correlating the onset of CMV-P with lymphocyte reconstitution following BMT have revealed that CD4 cells are present at very low frequencies in the blood during the early period after transplantation when most cases of CMV-P occur. Furthermore, studies directly investigating bronchoalveolar lavage cell types during episodes of CMV-P in BMT patients have also failed to demonstrate significant CD4 involvement and, instead, have emphasized a predominance of natural killer (NK) cells and CD8 cells. These findings serve as the basis for questioning the validity of a CD4-driven immunopathological model of CMV-P in BMT. On the other hand, a variety of experimental and clinical observations support the protective role of CMV-specific CD3+ CD8 T lymphocytes against CMV in both immunocompetent individuals and BMT patients. In a murine BMT model, adoptive transfer of syngeneic BM cells was associated with massive increases in lung CD8 cells which resulted in the resolution rather than the exacerbation of existing CMV-P. In the light of these findings a more plausible hypothesis for CMV-P in BMT is that during the early period after transplantation adequate protective CD8 responses are absent and an uncontrolled CMV proliferation is allowed to develop. Once a critical viral load is reached a cytokine 'storm' may be triggered in the lung tissue that aggravates direct CMV-associated cytopathic effects. Likely candidates for this process would include the release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) from alveolar macrophages stimulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) released from NK cells that are reconstituted early after BMT.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation / immunology*
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation / pathology
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / immunology*
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / pathology
  • Humans
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial / immunology*
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial / pathology
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial / virology