The combined effects of methylphenidate and a token reinforcement program in controlling a classroom behavior of 16 hyperactive, institutionalized retarded youngsters was investigated. A within-subject, placebo-controlled, double-blind design was employed. The results indicated that the behavior-modification procedures in the presence of placebo medication produced significant increases in work-oriented and related decreased in disruptive behavior. Few effects from the addition of active medication to the treatment program were found on any of the dependent measures. The findings suggest behavior modification to be a viable alternative to drug therapy for hyperactivity in retarded persons.