Impaired phosphate excretion resulting in hyperphosphatemia is one of the earliest consequences of chronic renal failure. To control serum phosphate levels, we can use the following therapies: 1) Restriction of dietary phosphate (but on CAPD, obligatory protein losses via peritoneal fluid makes impractical any reduction of phosphate diet. 2) Reduction of phosphate absorption, using phosphate binders. 3) Peritoneal phosphate removal.
Objective: 1) To evaluate the factors affecting peritoneal phosphate removal such as plasma phosphate, peritoneal membrane transport type, peritoneal dialysis modality prescription (CAPD or APD) and daily dialysate volume. 2) To test the best calcium concentration in the peritoneal dialysis fluid (5, 6 or 7 mg/dl) in order to permit the use of calcium carbonate or acetate without the risk of hypercalcemia or hyperparathyroidism.
Method: Phosphate was measured in seventy 24-hour dialysate collections, 33 from patients on CAPD and 37 from patients on APD. 24-hour peritoneal phosphate removal (mg/24 hours) and weekly peritoneal phosphate clearance was calculated (L/week). The peritoneal membrane was studied by the peritoneal equilibrium test (PET), using a 2.27% glucose. We calculated also the peritoneal calcium balance in 25 daily peritoneal fluid collections from patients using a calcium dialysate concentration of 5, 6 or 7 mg/dl each one. IPTH levels and doses of vitamin D were compared at 6 months in patients using a calcium concentration of 5, 6 or 7 mg/dl from the beginning of peritoneal dialysis (5 patients of each calcium dialysate concentration).
Results: Weekly peritoneal phosphate clearance (WPC) were higher or APD than on CAPD (51 +/- 21 vs 41 +/- 14, p < 0.005). Daily dialysate volume was also higher on APD (14 +/- 4 vs 7.8 +/- 1.8 L/day, p < 0.001). WPC was higher on APD when a mild-day exchange was done (61 +/- 23 vs 45 +/- 15, p < 0.005), instead an equal total daily volume of the dialysate. Peritoneal calcium balance was significantly more negative in patients using a calcium in the dialysis fluid of 5 than 6 or 7 mg/dl (-125 +/- 7 vs -18 +/- 41 vs -11 +/- 49, p < 0.001). At 6 months, patients using a calcium fluid concentration of 5 mg/dl increased iPTH levels (from 160 +/- 101 to 332 +/- 153, p < 0.001) and vitamin D needs (from 0 to 1.87 +/- 0.37 mcg/week, p < 0.001). In summary, peritoneal phosphate clearance depends on plasma phosphate levels, daily volume of dialysate prescribed and peritoneal membrane transport characteristics. It can be improved by increasing the total peritoneal fluid. On APD, a mild-day exchange may improve phosphate clearance, without total volume increase. The risk of secondary hyperparathyroidism can be decreased with a calcium fluid concentration of 6 mg/dl, which was shown to be better than 5 mg/dl when calcium phosphate binders are not correctly taken.