The outcome of invasive aspergillosis (IA) has been considered poor in allogeneic BMT recipients. We analyzed retrospectively the treatment and outcome of IA diagnosed during life in a recent cohort of 20 allogeneic BMT recipients. All patients were initially treated with amphotericin B (AmB) (conventional 16, liposomal 4). Due to toxicity, conventional AmB was changed to a liposomal preparation in 10 patients. Five patients also received itraconazole and three underwent surgery. Of 19 evaluable patients, two patients achieved a complete response and a partial response was observed in five patients (response rate 37%). The median survival was 37 days after the diagnosis. Only two patients (10%) were cured. The prognosis of allogeneic BMT recipients with IA has remained poor. Although treatment responses are common, immunosuppression aggravated by GVHD and its treatment, as well as the commonly disseminated presentation of IA, seem to be major obstacles to the success of therapy. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 26, 759-762.