We have retrospectively reviewed our single-center experience of the treatment of early onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). From 1991 to 1998, ten children with NS were treated. Kidney biopsy showed focal sclerosis (n=1), diffuse mesangial sclerosis (n=7), and congenital NS of the Finnish type (n=2). Associated conditions included incomplete Drash syndrome (n=1), Galloway-Mowat syndrome (n=1), and severe mental and motor retardation of unknown origin (n=3). From 1991 to 1997, five children with NS were treated. Bilateral nephrectomy (NX) was performed in three, one patient with severe retardation died at 4 years and NX was not performed in one patient who showed satisfactory growth and development. Three of these children were dialyzed and two were successfully transplanted. One patient was transplanted without previous dialysis. From 1997 to 1998, five children were treated with a regimen that included captopril and indomethacin (CAPTO/INDO). CAPTO/ INDO was successful in increasing serum protein in all patients and producing growth and development in four patients. In two patients CAPTO/INDO was successful only after unilateral NX. Our experience indicates that CAPTO/INDO may be a valuable treatment in patients with early onset NS. An individualized stepwise approach including unilateral NX should be considered to achieve optimal results.