Morphometric study of nucleus ambiguus in multiple system atrophy presenting with vocal cord abductor paralysis

Clin Neuropathol. Sep-Oct 2000;19(5):213-20.


Aim: To identify lesions responsible for vocal cord abductor paralysis (VCAP) in multiple system atrophy (MSA), we performed a morphometric study of the nucleus ambiguus which innervates the intrinsic laryngeal muscles.

Methods: Two autopsied cases of MSA presenting with VCAP and one control were examined. Both cases of MSA showed selective neurogenic atrophy of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles among the intrinsic laryngeal muscles, while no abnormalities were seen in the control. From a block of the medulla oblongata, sections 10 microm thickness were cut serially without spacing and stained with cresyl violet. The ambiguus neurons were counted in all the sections to make a histogram.

Results: In the control case, ambiguus neurons showed densely populated areas and sparsely populated areas alternately with significant difference in the mean neuronal density between two areas. In MSA, ambiguus neurons were significantly decreased in number at all levels. It indicates that the neurogenic atrophy of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle is derived from the neuronal loss of the nucleus ambiguus.

Conclusion: Though it has still been controversial whether or not the ambiguus neurons are decreased in number in MSA with VCAP, we speculated possible reasons for the disagreement on the involvement of the nucleus ambiguus as follows: different mechanism of VCAP are playing role, and histometric data have been disturbed by factors such as split-cell counting error and marked variation in the distribution of the ambiguus neurons.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cell Count
  • Death, Sudden
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Laryngeal Muscles / innervation
  • Male
  • Medulla Oblongata / pathology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple System Atrophy / pathology*
  • Neurons / pathology
  • Urinary Bladder / innervation
  • Urinary Incontinence / pathology
  • Vagus Nerve / pathology
  • Vocal Cord Paralysis / pathology*
  • Vocal Cords / innervation