Bone loss after renal transplantation: role of hyperparathyroidism, acidosis, cyclosporine and systemic disease

Clin Transplant. 2000 Oct;14(5):457-63. doi: 10.1034/j.1399-0012.2000.140503.x.

Abstract

In order to determine risk factors for bone loss after renal transplantation, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed in 125 renal transplant patients. The bone mineral density (BMD) was expressed as a percentage of the normal population (BMD%) and Z-score (SD from normal). The whole body, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD% (Z-score) values were 93.9 +/- 8.9 (-0.90 SD), 91.6 +/- 14.9 (-0.98 SD) and 87 +/- 15.3 (-1.0 SD)%, respectively. Low BMD% was associated with low creatinine clearance ( < 40 mL/min: 91.6 +/- 7.9, > 40 mL/min: 95.6 +/- 8.0, p < 0.01), repeated graft loss (0: 94.4 +/- 9.1, > 1: 87.4 +/- 9.3, p < 0.05), long dialysis duration ( < 1 yr: 95.2 +/- 7.9, > 5: 90.1 +/- 10.6, p < 0.05), acidosis (bicarbonate < 21 mmol/L: 89.6 +/- 8.0, > 27: 96.7 +/- 7.2, p < 0.01), secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism ( < 50 ng/L: 95.9 +/- 7.1, > 200: 87.7 +/- 5.0, p < 0.01), raised alkaline phosphatase ( < 200 units/L: 95.7 +/- 7.2, > 300: 85.6 +/- 13.2, p < 0.001), osteocalcin ( < 50 microg/L: 95.2 +/- 6.7, > 100: 89.3 +/- 7.6, p < 0.01) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (< 5 nM/mM creatinine: femoral neck 89.6 +/- 10.7, > 10: 82.1 +/- 20.1, p < 0.05), low 25-OH-vitamin D ( < 10 microg/L: 91.3 +/- 9.8, > 20: 96.9 +/- 7.4, p < 0.001) and high cyclosporine concentration (0 ng/L: 98.3 +/- 7.0, > 150: 92.1 +/- 9.3, p < 0.05). Patients with clinical atherosclerosis (91.7 +/- 8.6 vs. 95.4 +/- 8.8, p < 0.01), hypoalbuminemia ( < 550 micromol/L: 87.6 +/- 13.2, > 550: 94.2 +/- 7.8, p < 0.01), renovascular disease (89.7 +/- 5.7 vs. 95.0 +/- 5.7, p < 0.05) and diabetic nephropathy (femoral neck 76.6 +/- 8.8 vs. 89.3 +/- 15.1, p < 0.01) had lower bone masses. High bone mass was associated with previous dialysis alphacalcidol therapy (0: 92.2 +/- 7.5, > 3 microg/wk: 97.3 +/- 6.9, p < 0.05). No relationships with transplantation duration, 1,25-OH-vitamin D, aluminium, calcium or steroid dose were found. No involutional changes in tertiary hyperparathyroidism could be discerned.

Conclusion: The major threats to bone mass after renal transplantation appear to be ongoing hyperparathyroid bone disease, low renal function, acidosis, systemic disease and hypo-vitaminosis D.

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Acidosis / epidemiology*
  • Bone Density*
  • Cyclosporine / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / epidemiology*
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / diagnosis
  • Osteoporosis / epidemiology
  • Osteoporosis / etiology*
  • Postoperative Complications / diagnosis
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology

Substances

  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Cyclosporine