Eighty-seven patients with hematologic malignancies and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) were identified between 1982 and 1995. Of these, 39 underwent lung resection on the basis of radiological detection of at least 1 lesion with imaging suggestive of aspergillosis (LISA). IPA was confirmed histologically in 35. The presence of LISA had 90% positive predictive value for IPA. The actuarial survival at 2 years was 36% for 37 patients treated surgically, 20% for 12 patients with unresected LISA but no cultures of Aspergillus species, and 5% for 21 patients diagnosed only by isolation of Aspergillus from respiratory secretions. Analysis by proportional hazard models showed a significant independent negative association between the radiological appearance of LISA and death from all causes. Relapsed hematologic disease was independently significantly associated with death. Age, sex, surgery, previous bone marrow transplantation, or Aspergillus isolation were not independent predictors of death. IPA presenting as LISA carries a relatively good prognosis, possibly explaining the better survival of patients undergoing surgery for such lesions.