Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and idiopathic CD4+lymphocytopenia: a case report and review of reported cases

Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Oct;31(4):E20-2. doi: 10.1086/318120.


Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a well recognized demyelinating neurological disorder caused by JC virus. Idiopathic CD4(+) lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a syndrome first described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a CD4(+) count <300 cells/mm(3) or a CD4(+) count that is <20% of the total T cell count on 2 occasions, with no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on testing, and absence of any defined immunodeficiency or therapy that depresses the levels of CD4(+) T cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third reported case of PML and ICL, and also the first reported case of the use of cidofovir to treat PML in a patient not infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cidofovir
  • Cytosine / analogs & derivatives
  • Cytosine / therapeutic use
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Humans
  • Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / complications*
  • Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / diagnosis
  • Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / drug therapy
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Organophosphonates*
  • Organophosphorus Compounds / therapeutic use
  • T-Lymphocytopenia, Idiopathic CD4-Positive / complications*
  • T-Lymphocytopenia, Idiopathic CD4-Positive / diagnosis


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Organophosphonates
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Cytosine
  • Cidofovir