Yeast glyoxalase I is a monomeric enzyme with two active sites

J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan 19;276(3):1845-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M005760200. Epub 2000 Oct 24.


The tertiary structure of the monomeric yeast glyoxalase I has been modeled based on the crystal structure of the dimeric human glyoxalase I and a sequence alignment of the two enzymes. The model suggests that yeast glyoxalase I has two active sites contained in a single polypeptide. To investigate this, a recombinant expression clone of yeast glyoxalase I was constructed for overproduction of the enzyme in Escherichia coli. Each putative active site was inactivated by site-directed mutagenesis. According to the alignment, glutamate 163 and glutamate 318 in yeast glyoxalase I correspond to glutamate 172 in human glyoxalase I, a Zn(II) ligand and proposed general base in the catalytic mechanism. The residues were each replaced by glutamine and a double mutant containing both mutations was also constructed. Steady-state kinetics and metal analyses of the recombinant enzymes corroborate that yeast glyoxalase I has two functional active sites. The activities of the catalytic sites seem to be somewhat different. The metal ions bound in the active sites are probably one Fe(II) and one Zn(II), but Mn(II) may replace Zn(II). Yeast glyoxalase I appears to be one of the few enzymes that are present as a single polypeptide with two active sites that catalyze the same reaction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • DNA Primers
  • Kinetics
  • Lactoylglutathione Lyase / chemistry
  • Lactoylglutathione Lyase / genetics
  • Lactoylglutathione Lyase / metabolism*
  • Models, Molecular
  • Mutagenesis
  • Protein Conformation
  • Recombinant Proteins / chemistry
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / enzymology*


  • DNA Primers
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Lactoylglutathione Lyase