Considerable advancements have been made in providing informative, relevant interpretations of the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests to clinicians, clinical microbiologists, epidemiologists, and researchers. At the same time, the science of pharmacokinetics has flourished, and the importance of drug exposure in vivo on outcome is now recognized by researchers and clinicians alike. More recently, pharmacokinetic and quantitative measures of antimicrobial susceptibility have been integrated using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models to forecast clinical and microbiological outcomes. Stochastic methods utilizing patient population pharmacokinetics, target organism minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions, and PK-PD targets from non-clinical models of infection or clinical data have established a new paradigm for determining in vitro susceptibility breakpoints and selection of empirical therapy in clinical practice. Given the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance, these new tools are valuable additions for clinicians, researchers, and regulatory authorities.