Members of the recently identified family of Homo sapiens Aurora / Ipl1-related kinases (HsAIRKs), homologous to chromosome segregation kinases, fly Aurora and yeast Ipl1, are highly expressed during M phase, and have been suggested to regulate centrosome function, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In the present study, immunohistochemical analyses were performed of HsAIRK1 and HsAIRK3 expression in 78 primary colorectal cancers and 36 colorectal adenomas as well as 15 normal colorectal specimens. In normal colon mucosa, some crypt cells showed weak positive staining in 10 and 12 out of 15 cases for HsAIRK1 and HsAIRK3, respectively, the remaining cases being negative. Elevated expression of HsAIRK1 was observed in 53 (67.9%) of the colorectal cancers, and of HsAIRK3 in 40 (51.3%). Furthermore, colorectal adenomas showed high expression of HsAIRK1 and HsAIRK3 in 11 (30.6%) and 7 (19.4%) cases, respectively, thus being intermediate between colorectal cancers and normal colorectal mucosa. Interestingly, HsAIRK1 overexpression was significantly associated with pT (primary tumor invasion) and p53 accumulation in colorectal cancers. There was no significant correlation between proliferating cell nuclear antigen-labeling index (PCNA-LI) and the levels of these proteins. The results suggest that overexpression of HsAIRK1 and HsAIRK3 might be involved in tumorigenesis and / or progression of colorectal cancers.