Risk factors for microalbuminuria in black americans with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

Am J Kidney Dis. 2000 Nov;36(5):903-13. doi: 10.1053/ajkd.2000.19080.


We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to describe the prevalence of and risk factors for microalbuminuria among blacks with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Black adults with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus of 2 years' duration or less who presented for care to the Grady Diabetes Clinic (Atlanta, GA) between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1996, were eligible (n = 1,167). Information obtained at the initial visit included age; sex; body mass index (BMI); serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, C-peptide, serum creatinine, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) levels; and seated systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Outcome was urine albumin-creatinine (Alb/Cr) ratio at the initial visit. Alb/Cr ratios were categorized as normal (Alb/Cr <25 microgram/mg), microalbuminuric (Alb/Cr, 25 to 250 microgram/mg), and macroalbuminuric (Alb/Cr >250 microgram/mg). Patients with macroalbuminuria or creatinine levels of 2 mg/dL or greater were excluded. We used multiple linear regression to assess the joint association between HbA(1c) level, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and log-transformed Alb/Cr, controlling for other covariates. Of 1,044 patients studied, macroalbuminuria was present in 3.8%, and microalbuminuria, in 23.4%. Alb/Cr was independently associated with increased HbA(1c) level (P = 0.0070), MAP (P = 0.0001), BMI (P = 0.0156), log-transformed triglyceride levels (P = 0.0031), C-peptide level of 6.5 ng/mL or greater (P = 0.0007), serum creatinine level (P: = 0.0068), and male sex (P = 0.0220). The relationship between HbA(1c) level and microalbuminuria was stronger in patients with lower BMIs. Microalbuminuria prevalence was high in this population of urban blacks with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Risk factors associated with increased Alb/Cr included male sex, poor glycemic control, endogenous hyperinsulinemia, high blood pressure, elevated triglyceride levels, and obesity.

MeSH terms

  • African Americans*
  • Aged
  • Albuminuria / etiology*
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Diabetes Mellitus / urine
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / urine
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / complications*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / urine
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Obesity
  • Risk Factors


  • Creatinine