In vitro and in vivo activity of eugenol on human herpesvirus

Phytother Res. 2000 Nov;14(7):495-500. doi: 10.1002/1099-1573(200011)14:7<495::aid-ptr650>;2-8.


Eugenol (4-allyl-1-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzene) was tested for antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 viruses. In vitro, it was found that the replication of these viruses was inhibited in the presence of this compound. Inhibitory concentration 50% values for the anti-HSV effects of eugenol were 25.6 microg/mL and 16.2 microg/mL for HSV-1 and HSV-2 respectively, 250 microg/mL being the maximum dose at which cytotoxicity was tested. Eugenol was virucidal and showed no cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested. Eugenol-acyclovir combinations synergistically inhibited herpesvirus replication in vitro. Topical application of eugenol delayed the development of herpesvirus induced keratitis in the mouse model.

MeSH terms

  • Acyclovir / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Combinations
  • Eugenol / administration & dosage
  • Eugenol / pharmacology
  • Eugenol / therapeutic use*
  • Herpes Simplex / drug therapy*
  • Herpesvirus 1, Human / drug effects*
  • Herpesvirus 2, Human / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Vero Cells / drug effects


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Drug Combinations
  • Eugenol
  • Acyclovir