Objective: To compare the efficacy of indapamide sustained release (SR) 1.5 mg and enalapril 20 mg at reducing left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).
Design: The LIVE study (left ventricular hypertrophy regression, indapamide versus enalapril) was a 1 year, prospective, randomized, double-blind study. For the first time, a committee validated LVH before inclusion, provided on-going quality control during the study, and performed an end-study reading of all echocardiograms blinded to sequence.
Setting: European hospitals, general practitioners and cardiologists.
Patients: Hypertensive patients aged > or = 20 years with LVH (LVMI in men > 120 g/m2; LVMI in women > 100 g/m2). Data were obtained from 411 of 505 randomized patients.
Interventions: Indapamide SR 1.5 mg, or enalapril 20 mg, daily for 48 weeks.
Main outcome measures: LVMI variation in the perprotocol population.
Results: Indapamide SR 1.5 mg significantly reduced LVMI (-8.4 +/- 30.5 g/m2 from baseline; P< 0.001), but enalapril 20 mg did not (-1.9 +/- 28.3 g/m2). Indapamide SR 1.5 mg reduced LVMI significantly more than enalapril 20 mg: -6.5 g/m2, P = 0.013 (-4.3 g/m2 when adjusted for baseline values; P = 0.049). Both drugs equally and significantly reduced blood pressures (P< 0.001), without correlation with LVMI changes. Indapamide SR progressively reduced wall thicknesses throughout the 1-year treatment period. In contrast, the effect of enalapril observed at 6 months was not maintained at 12 months.
Conclusions: Indapamide SR 1.5 mg was significantly more effective than enalapril 20 mg at reducing LVMI in hypertensive patients with LVH.