Object: Functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging was used to determine patterns of cerebral blood flow changes in the somatosensory cortex that result from median nerve stimulation (MNS).
Methods: Ten healthy volunteers underwent stimulation of the right median nerve at frequencies of 5.1 Hz (five volunteers) and 50 Hz (five volunteers). The left median nerve was stimulated at frequencies of 5.1 Hz (two volunteers) and 50 Hz (five volunteers). Tactile stimulation (with a soft brush) of the right index finger was also applied (three volunteers). Functional MR imaging data were transformed into Talairach space coordinates and averaged by group. Results showed significant activation (p < 0.001) in the following regions: primary sensorimotor cortex (SMI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), parietal operculum, insula, frontal cortex, supplementary motor area, and posterior parietal cortices (Brodmann's Areas 7 and 40). Further analysis revealed no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between volumes of cortical activation in the SMI or SII resulting from electrical stimuli at 5.1 Hz and 50 Hz. There existed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in cortical activity in either the SMI or SII resulting from either left- or right-sided MNS. With the exception of the frontal cortex, areas of cortical activity in response to tactile stimulation were anatomically identical to those regions activated by electrical stimulation. In the SMI and SII, activation resulting from tactile stimulation was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from that resulting from electrical stimulation.
Conclusions: Electrical stimulation of the median nerve is a reproducible and effective means of activating multiple somatosensory cortical areas, and fMR imaging can be used to investigate the complex network that exists between these areas.