A novel Bax-associating protein, named MAP-1 (Modulator of Apoptosis), has been identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen. MAP-1 contains a BH3-like (BH: Bcl-2 homology) motif and mediates caspase-dependent apoptosis in mammalian cells when overexpressed. MAP-1 homodimerizes and associates with the proapoptotic Bax and the prosurvival Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) of the Bcl-2 family in vitro and in vivo in mammalian cells. Mutagenesis analyses revealed that the BH3-like domain in MAP-1 is not required for its association with Bcl-X(L) but is required for association with Bax and for mediating apoptosis. Interestingly, in contrast to other Bax-associating proteins such as Bcl-X(L) and Bid, which require the BH3 and BH1 domains of Bax, respectively, for binding, the binding of MAP-1 to Bax appears to require all three BH domains (BH1, BH2, and BH3) of Bax, because point mutation of the critical amino acid in any one of these domains is sufficient to abolish its binding to MAP-1. These data suggest that MAP-1 mediates apoptosis through a mechanism that involves binding to Bax.