The Swedish National Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) Register was initiated in 1979, and it is one of the oldest quality registers in the world. The register covers all hospitals in Sweden, and today it contains > 205,000 hip arthroplasties. The failure endpoint definition in the register is revision. There is no information about quality of life and mortality. The aim of this study was to validate the results presented by the Swedish THA register by comparison with the Discharge register (the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare) and to study mortality after hip arthroplasties. All hip arthroplasties from the Discharge register, performed in 1986 and thereafter, were compared with the Swedish THA register. Epidemiologic parameters, including mortality, were documented from the Swedish Death register. The mortality for primary THAs for men was 1% higher and for women 6% higher when compared with an age-matched and sex-matched cohort. For revision, the numbers were 7% and 9% higher. The risk for death compared with an age-matched and sex-matched population was lower for patients with osteoarthrosis treated with hip arthroplasty. The results with revision as failure endpoint showed that the Swedish THA register is reliable. The register includes >95% of the primary and revision THAs performed in Sweden between 1986 and 1995.