IgM is the first antibody to be produced in a humoral immune response and plays an important role in the primary stages of immunity. Here we describe a mouse Fc receptor, designated Fc alpha/microR, and its human homolog, that bind both IgM and IgA with intermediate or high affinity. Fc alpha/microR is constitutively expressed on the majority of B lymphocytes and macrophages. Cross-linking Fc alpha/microR expressed on a pro-B cell line Ba/F3 transfectant with soluble IgM or IgM-coated microparticles induced internalization of the receptor. Fc alpha/microR also mediated primary B lymphocyte endocytosis of IgM-coated Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, Fc alpha/microR is involved in the primary stages of the immune response to microbes.