Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostaglandin production by peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharides isolated from periodontopathogenic bacteria

J Periodontol. 2000 Oct;71(10):1575-82. doi: 10.1902/jop.2000.71.10.1575.


Background: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays important roles in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Recent studies have revealed the existence of 2 isozymes of cyclooxygenase (COX), called COX-1 and COX-2. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of COX-1 and COX-2 to PGE2 production by human peripheral blood monocytes that are stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from periodontopathogenic bacteria.

Methods: LPS were isolated from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) by the phenol-water method. Peripheral blood monocytes were stimulated with LPS for the indicated periods, and the levels of PGE2 or interleukin (IL)-1 beta in the culture media were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of COX-1 and -2 proteins was studied by immunocytochemical staining, and COX-2 mRNA expression was examined by Northern blot analysis.

Results: Peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans- or P. gingivalis-LPS produced PGE2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Indomethacin, a non-selective COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, and NS-398, a specific COX-2 inhibitor, completely inhibited PGE2 production. Immunocytochemical staining of COX-1 and COX-2 proteins showed that expression of COX-2 protein was increased in monocytes that were stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans- or P. gingivalis-LPS, compared with that in unstimulated monocytes, whereas expression of COX-1 protein was not altered. Northern blot analysis showed that monocytes stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans- or P. gingivalis-LPS expressed COX-2 mRNA, while COX-2 mRNA was not detectable in unstimulated cells. Treatment of A. actinomycetemcomitans-LPS-stimulated monocytes with NS-398 induced a significant increase of IL-1 beta production to the same extent as treatment with indomethacin.

Conclusions: These results suggest that COX-2 is induced in monocytes stimulated with LPS derived from A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis and that the COX-2 is primarily responsible for PGE2 production. COX-2 may be pivotal in PGE2 production in periodontal lesions and may be involved in inflammatory responses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans*
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Blotting, Northern / methods
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cyclooxygenase 1
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Dinoprostone / analysis
  • Dinoprostone / biosynthesis*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Interleukin-1 / analysis
  • Interleukin-1 / biosynthesis*
  • Isoenzymes / analysis
  • Isoenzymes / drug effects
  • Lipopolysaccharides / isolation & purification
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Monocytes / drug effects*
  • Monocytes / enzymology
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis*
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / analysis
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / drug effects*
  • RNA / isolation & purification
  • Stimulation, Chemical


  • Interleukin-1
  • Isoenzymes
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Membrane Proteins
  • RNA
  • Cyclooxygenase 1
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • PTGS1 protein, human
  • PTGS2 protein, human
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
  • Dinoprostone