Effect of fat-reduced diets on 24-h energy expenditure: comparisons between animal protein, vegetable protein, and carbohydrate

Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Nov;72(5):1135-41. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/72.5.1135.


Background: Single-meal tests have shown that protein has greater thermogenic and satiating effects than does carbohydrate, which may be relevant for the prevention and treatment of obesity if these effects can be maintained over 24 h.

Objective: The effects of pork-meat protein, soy protein, and carbohydrate on 24-h energy expenditure were compared.

Design: Twelve young, healthy, overweight and mildly obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 26-32] nonsmoking men participated in a randomized, single-blind, 3-way crossover study lasting 4 d. The intervention had a 1-10-wk washout period. The 3 isoenergetic intervention diets were as follows: pork diet (29% of energy as fat and 29% as protein, mainly from pork meat), soy diet (29% of energy as fat and 28% as protein, mainly from soy), and carbohydrate diet (28% of energy as fat and 11% as protein). Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was measured in a respiratory chamber at baseline and on day 4 of each intervention period.

Results: Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was higher with the pork than with the soy (248 kJ/d, 1.9%; P: = 0.05) or carbohydrate (492 kJ/d, 3.9%; P: < 0.0001) diet and higher with the soy than with the carbohydrate (244 kJ/d, 1.9%; P: < 0.05) diet. However, because of a higher satiating effect, energy intake was 10-15% lower during the chamber stay than at baseline (P: > 0.05) with all 3 diets. The differences in energy expenditure remained unchanged after adjustment for differences in 24-h energy balance.

Conclusions: Substitution of carbohydrate with 17-18% of energy as either pork-meat or soy protein produced a 3% higher 24-h energy expenditure. The animal protein in pork meat produced a 2% higher 24-h energy expenditure than did the vegetable protein in soy.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Basal Metabolism
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Meat*
  • Obesity / diet therapy*
  • Soybean Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Swine


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Soybean Proteins